Provinces in China and Economic Comparison

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Provinces in China


Anhui is located on the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze and Huaihe rivers, forming the hinterland of the more prosperous coastal provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang. It is a major industrial producer, particularly of white goods and motor vehicles. Infrastructure, especially transport links to the coast, has been improved, but the province still faces challenges, including river pollution and rural poverty.


Beijing is the capital of China, equipped with a highly educated workforce and academic institutions. Beijing is a major center of mobile phone technology research. The Olympic Games 2008 is the major upcoming event that has attracted hefty state spending, mostly on transport, environmental and other infrastructure projects. These have helped to galvanize Beijing’s economy, especially the real estate, financial services and high-tech sectors. 


Chongquing is located on the Yangtze River, 2500km west of Shanghai. It is the largest commercial and industrial center in the interior of China. The “go west” policy has seen some major developments as more and more large companies from the increasingly expensive coastal cities are relocating to Chongquing.


Fujian is a mountainous area located in southeastern China. It is an important hub for international trade, and a fulcrum of improving relations with Taiwan. Fujian’s main economic strengths lie in agriculture and light industry. However, it has attracted many multinationals from a variety of economic sectors.


Gansu is a long, thin strip of arid land in north-central China. Although largely underdeveloped, Gansu is abundant in natural resources, notably oil and gas reserves. The province’s hydropower potential is also starting to be tapped. However, Gansu’s reliance on heavy industry leads to a serious problem of pollution.


Guangdong is a coastal province, located in southeastern China. Its Pearl River delta is an economic powerhouse. The province’s main strengths lie in light manufacturing industries such as textiles, garments, food processing, electrical appliances, toys and shoes. Guangdong’s booming economy absorbs more foreign investment than any other province and accounts for a third of all China’s trade.


Hainan is a tropical island off China’s southern coast. It has rich energy resources and a thriving agricultural sector. Also a popular tourist resort, it is becoming more accessible thanks to expanding air services and new rail/ferry links to the mainland.


Hebei is located at the center of the Bohai region, which, along with the Yangtze and Pearl River deltas, forms China’s three major industrial belts. Hebei’s proximity to Beijing and Tianjin has brought about economic benefits. The province’s industrial strengths include iron, steel, and coke, and it is also a transshipment center for coal.


Heilongjiang lies in the farthest northeast region of China, abutting Russia. One of China’s largest oilfields – Daqing – is located in Heilongjiang. However, its reserves are declining. Hydropower, agriculture and forestry are major sectors of the province's economy. Growing border trade with Russia also benefits Heilongjiang, especially trade of natural resources.  

Hong Kong

Since its return to China in 1997, Hong Kong has stood as a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China. One of the key growth drivers of the region is exports, including re-exports to and from China. Another key "resource" has been the entrepreneurial drive and education in the ways of the World of Hong Kong residents.  This when married with the lower costs of the adjoining China regions in Shenzhen and Guangdong have allowed Hong Kong to serve as the front office with the factories/production facilities located just across the border in China.  Hong Kong has a developed economy and is one of the most expensive cities in the world.


Hubei is located in the Yangtze River valley, at the heart of central China. It is the country’s largest source of rapeseed and freshwater fish, and a top-five producer of sesame, rice, and tea. Hubei is becoming a leading investment destination and river port. The province’s industrial strengths include steel, vehicle manufacturing, and microelectronics.


Jiangsu, located on the eastern coast of China, is one of the most dynamic economies, as well as one of China's most densely populated province. Jiangsu's economy has benefited from its close location to Shanghai.  The province has more than 1000km of coastline and the Yangtze River stretching across the province. It is China’s third largest provincial economy. Among the most prominent industries are plastics, semiconductors, petrochemicals and automobiles.


Liaoning is situated in the northeast of China, with abundant mineral resources including substantial coal and iron ore reserves. It has advantages in heavy industries, including electronics, machine tools and petrochemicals. Moreover, foreign investment in high-tech industries is also helping to boost the region’s economy.


Shandong, the second largest provincial economy of China, is a peninsula lying on the northeastern coast. Shandong’s industrial focus includes cars and shipping. Its location on Bohai Bay renders the province a popular destination for South Korean and Japanese investors.


Shanghai is a large city on the east coast of China. It is a major financial center with China’s largest port and a leader in many industries. Many foreign companies have based their regional headquarters in Shanghai. Shanghai is also a manufacturing giant with manufacturers of cars, computers and chemicals all centered there.


Sichuan is a landlocked province surrounded by mountains, lying 1600km from the coast. Its fertile land makes the province a major agricultural producer. Sichuan is also China’s leading producer of natural gas and a significant generator of hydroelectric power. Some of Sichuan’s main industries include software and auto assembly.


Tianjin is the largest industrial center in the north of China besides being a commercial and financial center. Housing the fourth busiest container port of China.  Tianjin enjoys many competitive advantages. The province’s major industries include automobiles, electronics, petrochemicals, and metallurgy.


Yunnan is a largely mountainous province in China’s southwest with the richest variety of ethnic groups in China. Two biggest industrial sectors in Yunnan are metals and minerals. The province is also paying more attention to hydro generating potential and especially trading with neighboring countries, including Laos, Myanmar, and Vietnam.


Zhejiang is one of the wealthiest provinces of China, located in the eastern coast very near to Shanghai. It's exports accounted for nearly half of China’s trade surplus in 2005. Zhejiang has attracted a host of foreign investors in a variety of sectors, including garments, chemicals, plastics, metals, and fibers. It has become a shipping hub and an important manufacturing center, in which private enterprises plays a prominent role.

Copyright, 2006 © Runckel & Associates

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